Universal Screener/Progress Monitor, 2nd Edition ©
Donald J. Asbridge, Ed.S.
The USPM-2 is now available for FREE Download!
Friday, December 14th, 2018 The USPM-2 is being successfully implemented in a local school district and is now ready for use in other classrooms, schools, and districts. Much time and effort over the past three years has been put into the development and testing of this outstanding instrument. The USPM-2 is now available for FREE at the Downloads Page.
There is no need for you to pay $2000 to $4000 per school or $20,000 to $40,000 per district for a commercial universal screener. If you have someone in your district who knows the basics of Excel™ (you do), then you can easily implement this effective, research-based universal screener/progress monitor for every student! You don't have to pay an extra $10,000 to $20,000 for "intervention modules" or a new social skills curriculum for your teachers to provide SEL. The USPM-2 provides the structure for PBIS/MTSS models.
The Starter Kit is now AVAILABLE and consists of 5 components:
• The Original Research in PDF format.
• User's Guide 1.0 (explains everything you need to know to get started) in PDF format.
• Universal Screening Form (US-2) in Excel™ format.
• Progress Monitor Form (PM-2) in Excel™ format.
• NEW! Student Self-Rating Scales in Excel™ format.
"I was sold on it as soon as I saw it."
Principal, December of 2016
The student is the true expert in his or her life.
Teachers, counselors, and school psychologists can use the USPM-2 Student Self-Report to work with students to gather valuable information related to the student's perceptions of his/her performance and progress. An additional section addresses the three umbrella sections of PBIS (respect, responsibility, and safety). Goals can be set based on identified needs and progress monitoring can occur through subsequent administrations of the student scales. The student scales were successfully field tested in 2017-18.
Can download and review the USPM-2
Can use the USPM-2 in their classrooms for up to 3 months
Yearly fee (after the first 3 months trial period)
Only $15 per Year!
Can use the USPM-2 schoolwide for up to 3 months
Yearly fee (after the first 3 months trial period)
Only $100 per Year!
Can use the USPM-2 districtwide for up to 3 months
Yearly fee (after the first 3 months trial period)
Only $250 per Year!
Consultations/support via phone and/or e-mail
That's right, you are reading correctly! You can download and review the USPM-2 for FREE! A teacher, school, or district can implement it for up three months for FREE! If and only if it works for you and your students and you choose to continue to use it, then pay the unbelievably low fees to continue use!
If you choose not to continue to use the USPM-2, there are no obligations!
Please feel free to spread the word about the USPM-2 and refer interested people to this page, but any and all users agree not to redistribute the USPM-2 except as allowed by terms.
The author ultimately retains and reserves all rights to the USPM-2. Use is unlimited per class, school, or district levels as described by terms of license/fees or elsewhere on this page; otherwise, no part of this copyrighted USPM-2 may be reproduced or used in any other form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information and retrieval system, without prior written permission of the copyright owner.
The PBIS-MTSS/RtI models call for universal screening along multiple tiers so that data-based decisions can occur and improved student outcomes can become evident through progress monitoring. The USPM-2 provides the structure necessary for the successful implementation of PBIS-MTSS/RtI and SEL!!! It's four programs in one!
If you are using RtI in your district you probably are providing a lot of interventions. You might even be monitoring the progress of certain "targeted" students. You might even have developed a "hot list" of the 50 lowest performing readers in your school. But chances are you aren't utilizing a universal screener that addresses the whole human for all students in your school. Chances are you only monitor the progress of a few students in your school - not all of them. And probably your interventions only seek to improve reading scores. Students are much more than a score. And it's likely your school provides a lot of interventions because it make them feel good, but unfortunately interventions for the sake of interventions may make us feel good but they aren't really addressing the real issue. The USPM-2 universally screens and monitors the progress of all students in your school. Interventions address the whole human. And, the USPM-2 takes about three to four hours per year! Let teachers get back to teaching!!!
"Can you spare two hours a year?"
The USPM-2 is a research-based (Asbridge, 1993) universal screener and progress monitor utilizing teachers’ perceptions to assist schools with the identification of mild, moderate, or significant levels of risk across ten different domains. The information gathered allows for systematic, data-based decisions along the three-tiered system of support to help students.
A key component of the RtI (Response to Intervention) service delivery model is universal screening for students. A variety of screening methods are and have been utilized at different schools and districts throughout the nation, yet many current screening methodologies address only academics. There exist several issues and concerns with only screening for academics and not addressing the whole human.
Many other concerns related to the use, misuse, or nonuse of screening practices are well documented in the research and include the fact that unreliable or even invalid instruments, such as DIBELS, are often or sometimes limited, screening only levels of risk in reading.
Other problematic issues include differing perceptions of how screenings should occur, resulting in a wide range of practices between and within schools in the same district and even between individual staff members within the same grade in the same school. The USPM-2 can provide consistency in service delivery methods within a grade level, school, and district.
Progress monitoring is another required component of RtI but a myriad of similar challenges and difficulties exist. Often, schools don't systematically monitor student progress and if/when they do, there may be very little data involved.
The author has long been skeptical and an outspoken critic of RtI. Schools and districts have an important choice to make: either do RtI or don't do RtI, but if you're going to do RtI, then do RtI and do it well. The USPM-2 can help provide the structure for an effective RtI program. If you're not going to use RtI, then the USPM-2 can provide the structure for an effective PBIS-MTSS service delivery model. Either way you look at it, the USPM-2 is a win-win situation..
The USPM-2 requires only 4 hours per year minimum!!! That's right! The old behavioral models didn't work because they had a 20,000 page manual and took 40 hours per week to implement. They turned it into rocket science. Forget that!
Many (most) districts across the nation continue to struggle with the successful implementation of RtI/PBIS-MTSS (Education Week, 2016, 2017). The USPM-2 effectively addresses and resolves many concerns and obstacles in the provision of an effective, systematic screening and monitoring instrument and methodology to better serve students.
If you're tired of being just another school mired down for the past twenty years of struggling to implement RtI/PBIS, it's time to consider the USPM-2.
How It Works - USPM-2 Advantages:
• Is cost-effective.
• Is time-effective.
• Is easy to use.
• Goes beyond academics and behavior and addresses the “whole child.”
• Allows and encourages professional judgment.
• Values and respects teacher perceptions.
• Stresses early intervention and prevention.
• Effectively uses technology.
• Is based on research and allows opportunities for additional research.
• Provides structure and consistency to the RtI and PBIS-MTSS service delivery models.
• Provides data to assist with decisions to effectively help students.
• Provides several opportunities to monitor student progress.
• Encourages collaboration/consultation/communication amongst stakeholders.
• Enhances home-school communications.
• Does not label children – instead labels levels of concern or risk.
• And more!
How It Works - The Universal Screener (US-2):
• Each teacher/rater is provided with the Universal Screening Form via e-mail.
• Teacher completes the form (should take about an hour).
• Completed form is forwarded to administration and site USPM-2 Manager via e-mail.
• Results are collected, calculated, merged.
• Results are shared with teachers, grade levels, and site/district administration.
• Stakeholders collaborate/consult to make data-based decisions.
• Information is available for student, class, grade, school, and district levels.
• Interventions/services provided as appropriate.
• Progress screening/monitoring reoccurs as appropriate.
How It Works - The Progress Monitor (PM-2):
• Open the one-page form and complete it!
• Enter the student name, teacher name, and date.
• Enter the frequency/time of ratings (e.g., days, months, year)
• Enter up to 20 observed responses (can document more with more forms).
• Enter the number of observations.
• Results are automatically calculated and visually displayed in graph form.
• (Briefly) document the referral concern, goal, intervention, and results.
• Print out and share with stakeholders.
• Make data-based decisions resulting in improved student outcomes!
How It Works - The USPM-2 User's Guide (Topics):
• Overview and description (includes RtI, PBIS, and Reciprocal Determinism Models).
• Pros, cons, considerations, & cautions.
• How universal screening works (includes step-by-step instructions).
• Key to ratings.
• Operational definitions for each domain.
• Interpreting the data (general guidelines plus many examples).
• Making data-based decisions.
• Progress monitoring (using the US-2).
• Progress monitoring (using the PM-2).
• Future directions & next steps.
• Resources & References.
• And more!
How It Works - The USPM-2 Student Self-Rating Scale:
• The educator and student consult.
• Student rates his or her levels of concern in each domain.
• Goals can be set based on areas of need or concern.
• Teacher and student cooperatively work toward the goals.
• Subsequent consults can monitor the progress and determine new needs/goals.
• With the student making choices and the educator listening and supporting the student, great progress is possible.• And more!
The USPM-2 provides universal screening and progress monitoring within a multitiered system so that data-based decisions can lead to improved student outcomes.
Overall: John's overall average of 2.1 is ranked 16th of 24 students in the class. Needs: The most significant concerns exist with reading, writing, and math. He needs to improve his performance in these academic areas (ELA = 5; Math = 4). John is usually motivated (MOT = 3) to try his best, except during ELA activities, in AR quizzes (he has .5 points), and when asked to read aloud in class. His parents have reported he has no quiet place (ENV = 3) to complete his homework and that he dislikes homework. Strengths: John has had perfect attendance (ATTD = 1); he has many friends and always seems happy and friendly; his behavior (BEH = 1) is appropriate and he always follows classroom rules and expectations; he appears healthy and active (Hx = 1), winning second place in the school's Presidential Fitness Test (from User's Manual, p. 9).
Here is one example of how the USPM-2 can provide powerful information leading to improved student outcomes.
The third-grade teacher has rated her levels of concern (from 1 to 5) in the ten different domains for each of her students in her class, as did every teacher in the school.
Note: Operational definitions, keys to ratings, and everything else are in the User's Manual.
From the data alone, you can see how information can lead to an increased understanding and be utilized for every student, classroom, grade level, and school along the multitiered system of support.
Compare the USPM-2 approach, which addresses the whole human, with many RtI/PBIS approaches only addressing academics and behavior.
In the real-life example above, John was struggling with academics, appeared to lack motivation, and often did not complete his assigned classwork and homework. Instead of just giving more DIBELS, continued poor grades, and a behavioral referral to the office, the teacher considered everything.
The teacher consulted with John's parent during conference week and some strategies were found to help reduce the homework wars and some modifications were made to allow time for basketball practice. His teacher also encouraged parent to remove him from a lifetime of grounding and return his use of the computer. At school, John was allowed to read in small groups rather than in front of the entire class in exchange for his contracted/negotiated agreement to increase his AR points.
Within the first week, John's motivation and home concerns showed significant improvement, both increasing to Level 1 (no significant concerns). His overall average was reduced to 1.7, showing overall improvement. His academics remained significant (Level 5) for the rest of the trimester - some things take time. However, as per progress monitoring results, his ELA rating improved to Level 4 by the end of the next trimester.
The USPM-2 provides universal screening for the whole human to provide interpretive data/information which can lead to interventions and services as appropriate leading to improved student outcomes as shown by progress monitoring.
"Now we can make learning fun again!"
Teacher (November of 2016)
Overall: Juan’s overall average of 3.7 is rated as the most significant in the class and grade level. This English Language Learner receives specialized academic support and speech services through special education. Needs: Although he receives special education support, he appears to have given up on academics, realizing he is far behind his peers. There has been a recent parental separation at home. He sometimes becomes angry with peers on the playground and when that happens, disruption occurs in the classroom as the arguments may continue for the duration of the day. Strengths: He has perfect attendance, appears healthy and active, and is friendly, helpful, and talkative with adult staff (from User's Manual, p. 10).
What would you do to help this student?
In the old days, this is the type of student who would just get a bunch of F's and behavioral referrals but this teacher, addressing the whole human, acknowledged to him that times were tough for him right now but provided optimism - that he was going to be okay. She praised his perfect attendance and outgoing personality. She encouraged him to signup for the free throw shooting competition. She provided many opportunities for him to help in the classroom and assigned him roles where he could be responsible. Ultimately, she treated him with respect and dignity, something that had been previously lacking in his schooling.
There was much more provided for the student when he was in the third grade (teachers working cooperatively with students toward a goal remain my heroes)... this case ended up as a great success story. There are no miracle cures but by the end of the year, the student still struggled with academics and maybe always will (but that's okay because students are much more than a mere test score) and he still struggled at times with his home situation (but that's okay because doesn't everyone at times?). But he helped other students, became more responsible, made some friends, and began to feel better about things... as he felt better, his behavior improved and he tried harder. He began to smile. He began, for the first time, to like school.
Does all this mean the teacher has to be a counselor or therapist? Nope. It just means the teacher needs to take the time to remember the student is a real human with a lot of strengths and weaknesses, just like the rest of us... not just a test score or a behavior.
Special Report: RtI Expands, Encounters Growing Pains
"RtI continues to expand it's reach and evolve. This special report on RtI - Ed Week's second such report - explores the challenges facing educators as they adopt RtI for new uses... and use it to improve learning for all students. The USPM-2 meets that challenge.
The educational SEL revolution is finally here and the USPM-2 is amongst the leaders!
1) The renewed interest in social-emotional learning (SEL) is here to stay at state and national levels.
2) Social-emotional learning is picking up momentum nationwide and is in part a "pendulum swing" (like we often see in education) but mostly a very specific movement away from the failed behavioral model.
3) It's been over 20 years since the behaviorists legislated their philosophy (in California, that occurred through the Hughes Bill). Nationwide, schools and districts are now looking for something that works for humans. Modern educators are wanting to view humans as more than a mere score on a reading inventory and something more than a mere point on a behavioral graph. The zeitgeist is calling for revolutionary change.
4) Thank goodness we are finally witnessing the end of the behavioral era.
5) I welcome the new humanistic era, where we can return to students the freedom and dignity that Skinner took away. In the new era we can address the whole human. We can start to recognize that even though the student doesn't like math and failed the quiz, he is the starting point guard on the traveling basketball team, finished 2nd in the Presidential Fitness Test, and plays a mean clarinet. And he does his chores at home. Those things count too. Everything counts.
NOTICE: The USPM-2 is NOT RtI!!!
The USPM-2 addresses the whole human, not just a targeted behavior or test score. The USPM-2 utilizes a positive, humanistic model based on research. The USPM-2 can help us move successfully into the new era. And much, much more...
"SEL" stands for Social-Emotional Learning and represents the growing movement toward the recognition that public education needs to address and account for more than just test scores and behavior.
CASEL (Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning) is amongst the leaders in this movement. Their mission, like mine, is ambitious. They are striving to make evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) an integral part of education from preschool through high school. View their strategic plan as they/we strive to transform this momentum into a movement.
The 8 CORE California districts (Los Angeles, San Francisco, Sacramento, Oakland, Long Beach, Santa Ana, Sanger, Garden Grove, and Fresno) and many others throughout the nation have recognized the importance of SEL and are on board, using concepts/technology from Panorama Education. You are highly encouraged to watch the brief 6-minute video, from the Panorama site, explaining the SEL vision as well as Fresno's success story. However, keep in mind that Panorama Education's model charges approximately $2000 per school site (the USPM-2 is $100 per site!!!
The USPM-2, just as is true for CASEL, Panorama Education, and others, strives to provide a research-based, data-driven, reliable and humanistic method/model to address the whole human, everything."
The USPM-2 moves beyond behaviorism and instead provides humanistic opportunities to understand and address the whole human - everything. A reciprocal-determinism model (Social Learning, Bandura & Walters) considers cognitions (Thinking), emotions (Feelings), and behaviors (Doing), within the setting (Environment/Social) and accounts for and addresses the complex interactions between and within them all.
How do you measure the whole human?
The USPM-2 uses 10 domains to account for the whole human:
The classroom teacher rates his or her level of concern for each student in each domain from 1-5.
1 and 2 indicate Mild or No concerns and are considered Tier I.
3 and 4 are considered Tier II (Moderate) and suggest a need for interventions and/or monitoring.
5 is considered Significant (Tier III) and requires immediate attention.
Note: the USPM-2 is NOT utilized for students in crisis; if a student is in crisis take immediate appropriate actions.
Establishing levels of concern along a multi-tiered system of support is not a new concept for modern schools and districts. Many already are doing that through RtI and PBIS-MTSS. Here is what is different about the USPM-2: teachers' phenomenology* and perceptions are valued. The teacher almost always knows his or her students better than anyone else on campus.
Teachers' ratings provide real and powerful data.
Ratings are not just a "gut instinct," but instead reflect their professional judgement - teachers know their students! The USPM-2 doesn't ask teachers to go give several tests to "prove" their ratings (but if asked, any teacher could provide all kinds of testing and other data to support their ratings). Teachers are very busy people... they don't have time to go give a bunch of new tests for the USPM-2 to show the student is low in reading... they already know who is low in reading because they've already given a bunch of tests! The USPM-2 values teacher's time.
*Phenomenology, as used in the USPM-2, means the rater's perception, based on everything s/he knows. For example, the teacher rates the level of concern as a "3," based on countless hours of observations, student comments and discussions, classroom performance, parent input and communications, test and quiz scores, nationally-normed scores, formal and informal academic measures, personal and observed interpersonal dynamics in class, the hallways, cafeteria, and playground, seeing and helping the student cope with bad days or moments during the school year, celebrating victories and birthdays, watching him or her learn to play an instrument or scoring 8 points in the basketball game or finishing his homework for the first time all year... etc. When you think about it, all that data is much more powerful than say, a 12 on a DIBELs.
Phenomenology, in and of itself, goes much deeper and is a scientific as well as a philosophical approach. Time and space limitations do not allow an in-depth discussion of phenomenology at this time but the interested reader is encouraged to research the term further.
It is true that not everyone perceives the world in the same way. Some teachers rate all of their students as a "1" while others feel all of their students are a "5!" It is therefore useful to implement a norming/calibration process to "get everyone on the same page of the book." This is not a new concept: teachers have always collaborated to insure a grade of A, for example, is the same for Student A as it is for Student B.
Usually, during a grade-level meeting or other professional collaborative event, teachers can discuss their levels of concern for their students and can mutually agree upon an understood system. With practice and experience, teachers will soon become experts at consistently rating their levels of concern. The Ratings KEY operationally defines the three tiers.
There are a few "calibration/norming activities" I have found useful. Contact me for more information.
The USPM-2 is proving to be flexible to meet the needs of schools/districts in many ways, including:
Many professional educators (myself included) oftentime feel "swamped" with so many programs, laws, procedures, regulations, etc. with which to deal on a daily basis. The USPM-2 is like 8 programs in one (RtI, Rti2, PBIS, MTSS, SST/SAT, SEL, ESSA/Digitial Chalkboard, and Dyslexia screenings)!
Use the USPM-2 to implement the other programs! Think of the time and cost savings.
In September of 2017 the California Department of Education released the California Dyslexia Guidelines (PDF Document, last modified October 2017) to address the new law related to dyslexia (many other states passed similar laws). Washing their hands of the matter, the CDE forwarded their findings to the county offices, who in turn washed their hands and dropped the findings on to the districts. Now each district in the state (and even each school in each district) is defining and assessing dyslexia differently. But not to worry, I can tell you right now that's the ways it's always been - the only thing that's changed is now there's more work for everyone. XP would like to, um, thank the dyslexia advocates and lawyers for creating this new mess. However, there is hope. Your school and/or district can use the USPM-2 to address the new law and procedures in a time- and cost-effective manner... then teachers can get back to the important task of teaching! Here, in a nutshell, is how you can modify the USPM-2 to address the new California dyslexia guidelines...
SURPRISE! The new dyslexia guidelines call for universal screening and progress monitoring along a tiered system of supports so that data-based decisions can occur (p. 42). Sound familiar?
Identified as essential areas for assessment (Table 9.1, p.48) in the CDE document, kindergarten teachers complete results for each domain. Not to worry, kindergarten teachers already assess these areas - all the teacher has to do is document the results). Using the USPM-2 format, other grades could also screen and/or monitor.
KEY to Abbreviations:
NOTE: Phenomenological data (i.e., levels of concern from 1-5) could be used or actual test scores could be used.
Tier II: General education instruction & interventions/progress monitoring as appropriate.
Using the USPM-2, post-hoc analysis reveals the lowest 7% of the population (i.e., those who may need additional interventions, assessment, and/or progress monitoring). The progress monitoring component can help determine which students are responding to interventions and those who may need additional assessment.
Tier III: Assessment for special education.
If/when dyslexia (that is, a learning disability) is suspected, assessment for possible special education eligibility occurs (pp. 53-55). That's the way it's always been and that's the way it remains.
You can quickly see how the USPM-2 is flexible to meet the new California Dyslexia requirements without every school and district in the state having to form new task forces to develop new manuals filled with new procedures.
Keep using the USPM-2, keep doing what you're doing, and thank you for everything you do!
The SEL Industry is already booming. A lot of individuals and corporations are already making millions of dollars with their products. There is nothing wrong with that and XP is all-in on SEL (as a psychologist, I've always addressed the whole human). But the SEL Industry needs to remember and learn from the past. Remember why RtI failed...
RtI came in like a bull in a china shop, legislated their philosophy, bullied everyone until they gave in to their new behavioral model, made lots of money selling their 20,000 page manuals filled with their versions of rocket science, and expected teachers and staff to spend twenty hours per week passing out the correct number of M&M's as per the prescribed schedule of reinforcement.
My plea to the SEL industry is to remember all this and not to repeat the mistakes the behaviorists made. SEL approaches and philosophies are great, but don't legislate the philosophy. SEL is great but don't expect staff to spend 20 hours per week in SEL activities. SEL is great, but are you really charging $20,000 per district? $2000 per school? There exists a wealth of research and information related to the life-changing potential of SEL approaches but SEL is more than a get-rich quick fad, it's not a magic cure... it's an approach that can sometimes help humans. So to those who are jumping on to the SEL train, please treat SEL with respect. And, BUYER BEWARE! Think twice before you spend $20,000 on a new computerized program expecting your teachers and staff to change their entire professional approaches, techniques, strategies and philosophies spending twenty hours per week or more involved in computer activities.
Here's a brief reminder: the USPM-2 asks for four hours per year, not twenty hours per week You can download the USPM-2 for FREE. And a there's a lot more of course! I hope that before your district shells out $20,000 for one of the big programs, you'll compare it with the USPM-2!
(Monday, December 17th, 2018) Hello again, everyone! Just a quick reminder that the USPM-2 can never result in a misdiagnosis because the USPM-2 does not diagnose!!! Instead, the USPM-2 provides qualitative and quantitative information intended to help humans. For example, the instrument may identify a student who may need assistance with reading - it does not identify a reading disability. If a student needs help with reading, why call him or her a bad name? Why not just help the student with reading? So in case you can't tell, Miss D loves the USPM-2! You will too!
Top 10 Reasons To Use The USPM-2:
1) Leads to improved positive outcomes for students;
2) Provides the framework and structure for RtI/PBIS service delivery models;
3) Humanistic approach addresses the whole-human, not just reading and behavior;
4) Respects and values teacher perceptions and judgments;
5) Encourages professional communities, collaboration, and consultation;
6) Is time-effective - requires only about 10 hours per year - teachers have time to teach;
7) Effectively uses modern computer technology;
8) Research-based and allows additional opportunities for research;
9) Easy to use and understand; and
10) Hey, it's FREE, it can't hurt to give it a try, eh?
The USPM-2 Checklist
See if the USPM-2 is the right choice for you!
Q: I'm interested, but before I commit my entire school to using the USPM-2, I'm thinking it might be wise to pilot it in a few classrooms or for a grade level first. Do you think that's a good idea?
A: Yes, that's a great idea!
Q: You advertise and promote the USPM-2 "Starter Kit." If I get started using the USPM-2, what else will be needed down the road? Are there any surprises?
A: The main requirement will be the need for someone who is capable using Excel™ spreadsheets. Someone will need to be able to collect the data, merge it, sort it, print it, and distribute it to each teacher and stakeholder for additional interpretation (i.e., so subsequent data-based decisions can occur).
Q: We love the USPM-2 but rather than using Excel™, we want to use the same format but make it available for all raters through Google Docs™. Is that okay?
A: Yes, that's a great idea!
Q: I work in a district that is increasingly emphasizing outcome-based educational practices. Can the USPM-2 provide data that can show improved student outcomes?
A: Yes, that's exactly what the USPM-2 does. The data can show the progress your class andy your students made.
Q: Are you saying RtI/PBIS can be this simple and effective? Over the past ten years my district has spent hundreds of thousands of dollars struggling to get RtI to work.
A: Yes, that's what I'm saying.
Q: Is the USPM-2 the same as RtI? I'm confused.
A: No, but the USPM-2 provides the basic components and structure necessary to provide effective RtI (and PBIS-MTSS, SEL, and more).
Q: I like the universal screening component but I have my own progress monitor that I've successfully used for years. Is it okay if I continue to use my own monitor?
A: Yes of course. Always do whatever works best for your students.
Q: I shared the USPM-2 with my school principal but she is not interested. Can I use the USPM-2 just in my class to screen, monitor, and intervene?
A: Yes. Then, at the end of the year, you can share the results and she will probably reconsider.
Q: I don't feel comfortable telling parents their student received a "5" or a "4," etc.
A: First of all, don't ever do anything you don't feel comfortable doing. Second, I've heard this statement a few times but I don't understand. In Parent-Teacher Conference I know you share with parents how their child is performing in reading, writing, and math. I know you share with parents if there are any concerns related to attendance, behavior, or emotions, etc. So I don't understand why you would express this as a concern. It seems to me there is no difference between the statement, "John is significantly behind in reading" (as per the old way) -and- "John is significantly behind in reading" (as per the USPM-2).
Q: I'm very busy and I don't have an extra two hours per year to devote to thinking about my students' welfare and what's going on in their lives. I administer tests and the students get the scores they earned. If their behavior is not up to my expectations they are sent out. Plus, it's not in my contract.
A: Well, okay then.
Q: Can I customize US-2 and PM-2 forms? I want to add my school's logo and colors. I also want to add a couple columns to better meet the needs of my students.
A: Yes, feel free to customize the forms however you would like. Make it your's! If you have any ideas on how the USPM-2 can be improved, please never hesitate to let me know!
Q: We are trying the USPM-2 at my school and we love it! We are calling it USPM-Lite because it's so effective and easy to understand and implement. Is that okay?
A: Yes, that is terrific! I'll take that as a great compliment and start using that term myself! Thank you!
Q: I love the USPM-2! Can I share it with other teachers and on teacher resource sites?
A: Thank you! Please feel free to tell other teachers and educators about the USPM-2 and do not hesitate to spread the word across the internet, but please do not redistribute the USPM-2... instead, refer them to this page.
Q: I work in a SELPA in a different state. We are thinking about using the USPM-2 for all the districts in the county. What do you think?
A: I think that would be a terrific choice.
Q: Aren't you the guy who has always complained about RtI? Why the change of heart now?
A: Yes, that's me! As a social scientist I've always been skeptical of RtI for too many reasons to list here. I'm forwarding the USPM-2 because, frankly, it's embarrassing to see public education continue to fail to such a degree year after year. I think we can do better. We have to do better. RtI is in a national crisis. There are no magic cures but the USPM-2 provides a real opportunity to get back to the basics, to find something that works better.
Q: I'm still confused. You don't like RtI but you are recommending RtI?
A: Let's just say it... RtI failed and has been a miserable failure for twenty years, yet everyone for some reason does it. I say if we have to to RtI, then let's make it simple. It shouldn't be rocket science, it shouldn't take forty hours per week to implement, and it shouldn't require a 40,000-page user's manual. RtI failed because all that happened in 95% of districts across the nation was the provision of [behavioral] "interventions" because that seems like a nice thing to do. Seemingly, little or no time or effort was spent actually establishing the program, which merely consists of universal screening, progress monitoring along a multitiered system of supports, leading to data-based decisions. They started a program but never started the program! So all the USPM-2 states is, "if we have to do RtI (and we don't have to do it - your district might just decide that RtI has been a miserable failure and they just aren't going to do it any more - that might be a wise choice), then let's do RtI and remember it's not rocket science. Screen, monitor, make data-based decisions resulting in observable positive student outcomes." It's that easy... four hours per year. Then teachers can get back to teaching and the USPM-2 has provided a wealth of data at a variety of levels to help students.
Q: So am I expected to change everything I'm doing for still another program, another fad? I'm tired of all these new programs and fads coming around every year or two and I'm expected to change everything I've been doing as a teacher.
A: First, thank you for everything you do as a professional educator. I feel the same way, that's why I created the USPM-2... something that takes a few hours per year, yet effectively allows you to implement all of those other programs in one fell swoop. Keep doing what you're doing and enjoy the extra time you will have saved by using the USPM-2!
Q: My district says they are doing PBIS/MTSS but all they are really doing is providing interventions... things like extra recess time, pizza lunches, and cafeteria games. I think they are providing all these interventions because it makes them feel good about themselves - not because they are based on any data. The interventions certainly are not targeted to address specific needs.
A: If you look at the models, PBIS/MTSS clearly state that schoolwide universal screening for all students occurs so that data can be gathered so that targeted interventions are provided and that progress can be monitored. That's what the USPM-2 does. If your school is not universally screening, gathering data, providing targeted interventions, and monitoring progress, then they're not doing PBIS-MTSS.
Resources by RtI2 Ten Core Components
On this California Department of Education page are resources, links, and information related to RtI. This list, identifies the ten core components of RtI, reminding us once again how easy RtI should and could be (well, all except SLD determination, that's another story). Teachers are already providing high-quality classroom instruction - thank you for all you do! The USPM-2 either directly or indirectly provides or assists with the items on the list:
• High-quality classroom instruction
• High expectations
• Assessments and data collection
• Problem-solving systems approach
• Research-based interventions
• Positive behavioral support
• Fidelity of program implementation
• Staff development and collaboration
• Parent and family involvement
• Specific Learning Disability determination (RtI2 only)
School-wide Screening for At-Risk Students: Best Practices and School Examples
The PBIS site provides some pretty good information related to school wide screening.
The Center on Response to Intervention forwards information and links related to the topic of universal screening, mostly addressing academic realms.
Controversy plagues school mental health screening
The USPM-2 is not a mental health screener. There are pros, cons, considerations, cautions, risks, and potential pitfalls whenever ranking and sorting of humans occur by any method. The USPM-2 does not screen for, nor diagnose, any mental health or DSM conditions. In addition to the USA Today article, there are thousands of additional resources available through an internet search related to mental health screenings. The USPM-2 does screen for real-life difficulties using real language. The USPM-2 strives for a noncategorical model, not a categorical model.
This YouTube video (2:56) by Brooke Miller provides a brief introduction and overview of reciprocal determinism.
SEL Screeners from Edutopia
Devereux Early Childhood Assessment, Second Edition
Devereux Student Strengths Assessment & the DESSA-Mini
Social-Emnotional Assets and Resilience Scale (SEARS)
Social Skills Improvement System Rating Scales
Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale (BERS) and Preschool BERS (PreBERS)
9 Instruments, including:
Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ:SE)
Behavioral and Emotional Screening System (BESS)
Eyberg CBI and Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory - Revised
Greenspan Social Emotional Growth Chart
Preschool and Kindergarten Behavior Scales - 2nd Edition (PKBS-2)
Temperament and Atypical Behavior Scale (TABS)
Social, Emotional, Behavioral Skills Checklist (Opens Word Document)
Massachusetts Department of Education
Implementing a Universal Social-Emotional Screener in K-8 (Opens in PPT)
I like Panorama Ed… if you can afford $2000-$3000 per school site and about 8-16 hours per week to implement it.
Popular Social-Emotional Learning Curriculum
$4,500 for starting bundle for teachers
The Universal Screener/Progress Monitor, 2nd Edition (USPM-2) by Donald J. Asbridge provides the necessary components for the successful implementation of RtI/PBIS-MTSS and SEL in classrooms, grade levels, schools, and districts.
XP highly recommends the authoritative SEL source:
The USPM-2 is not yet officially included in the CASEL GUIDE, but the application for possible inclusion will soon be forwarded.
My apologies, the following chart, due to size, is obviously quite difficult to read. It reflects the categories and criteria CASEL utilizes in describing the various programs. As previously mentioned, the USPM-2 is not yet officially listed in the CASEL GUIDE, but the chart below illustrates the simple yet effective USPM-2 realms. A narrative follows...
Average Number of Sessions per Year:
Classroom Approaches to Teaching SEL
Explicit Skills Instruction:
Integration with Academic Curriculum:
Teacher Instruction Practices:
Opportunities to Practice SEL Skills:
Contacts that Promote & Reinforce SEL
Assessment Tools to Monitor Implementation & Behavior
Monitoring Student Behavior:
2-3 Schoolwide Screenings per Year
No Mandated Social Skills Training
√ Yes (ELA and Math)
√ Yes (concurrent with SSR)
No, not yet
Tuesday, December 18th, 2018 The Delano Union School District in California has incorporated the USPM-2 format into the Illuminate™ Program. Now, instead of just academic scores, the DUSD addresses the whole human. Scores are entered online and automatically calculated. The USPM-2 just got easier! If your district uses Illuminate, you can easily configure it and administer the USPM-2 online!
The USPM-2 does provide:
1) A strong research base;
2) Universal Screening for all students;
3) Reliable and valid data so that data-based decisions and targeted interventions can occur; and
4) Effective methods ot monitor progress.
The USPM-2 does not provide:
1) A comprehensive curriculum to teach social skills; or
2) A long list of interventions to try.
Let's think about this for just a minute. Is this a fatal flaw in the USPM-2?
First, the USPM-2 is one of the very few programs that actually offers a universal screener that provides comprehensive data (addressing the whole human) so that data-based decisions can occur and monitors progress. There are plenty of other programs out there but I invite you to compare the USPM-2 with them... most of them are outrageously priced (e.g., $2000 per school per year) and/or require teachers and staff to spend 8 or more hours per week teaching their social skills curriculum. The USPM-2 is cost- and time-effective.
Second, teachers are very busy people. I always point out that they already are providing hundreds of interventions every hour all day long. i don't feel comfortable assigning teachers another 8 hours per week to teach social skills. Plus, in many districts, they have already been assigned that duty. If you are interested in adding a social skills curriculum, go ahead and purchase it - there are plenty of them available. But the USPM-2 allows and encourages professional judgment by the teacher to address a problem (maybe all that's needed is a kind word that day, not a lengthy scripted curriculum).
Finally, I'm sorry to say this but just teaching social skills is only addressing 1% of the gestalt. Plenty of districts seem misguided in their overemphasis on just teaching social skills and then feeling good about themselves. In my experiences, almost all students already possess great social skills and are quite capable of successfully using them when they so choose. So it's not that they haven't learned social skills, the problem is that they don't always choose to use them. Rather than spending eight hours a week teaching him or her social skills, the district should be encouraging students to make great choices.
To compare the USPM-2 with other programs, Google any of the following search terms: RtI, PBIS, MTSS, Universal Screener, Progress Monitor, SEL, Targeted Interventions, Data-Based Decisions, Measuring Student Outcomes, Outcome-Based Education, Phenomenology, Phenomenological Research, Reciprocal-Determinism, Social Skills Training Curriculum, Panorama Ed, Second Step, Humanistic Approaches in the Schools...
If you like the USPM-2, please share this site with others!
USPM-2 Official Home Page: www.xpsych.com/uspm2.htm
USPM-2 Public Release Date: December 28th, 2016 • Page Updated: December 25th, 2018
Go to the Downloads Page to download the FREE USPM-2 (terms apply)
Check out the NEW Universal Screener Page on Facebook
USPM-2 © 1993, 2014-21. Donald J. Asbridge, Ed.S. Bakersfield, CA USA. Some rights reserved.
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